© Media Watch 8 (3) 378-388, 2017
ISSN 0976-0911 e-ISSN 2249-8818
Sustenance of Native Culture in Multilingual Written Texts: A Case Study of The God of Small Things and The Hungry Tide
Vellore Institute of Technology University, India
Literary multilingualism has been dexterously used by the Indian English writers to reflect the cultural and behavioral style of the characters and make the setting realistic. The paper attempts to identify and analyze the kinds of literary techniques used in Indian English fiction and how through the use of these techniques, the writers have tried to sustain the native culture in the setting of the novel. The tools chosen for analysis include translated proverbs, songs and religious verse and the methodology preferred for this purpose is narrative methodology. The analysis of these devices in the textual background shows that in the Indian English fiction, the native culture in the setting of the novel can best be sustained by the use of native elements.
Keywords: Literary multilingualism, sustainability, Indian English, culture, proverbs, religious verse
Auer, P. (1999). From code switching via language mixing to fused lects: Toward a dynamic typology of bilingual speech. International Journal of Bilingualism. Vol. 3, No. 4, 309-332.
Chandran, M. (2007). Not Lost in Translation: Chemmeen on Alien Shores. Translation Today. 4 (1 & 2), 55.
Driesen, C. V. (1999). When Language Dances: The Subversive Power of Roy’s Text in The God of Small Things. Arundhati Roy: The Novelist extraordinary. Ed. R. K. Dhawan. New Delhi: Prestige Books, 370-371.
Gardner-Chloros, P., & Weston, D. (2015). Code-switching and Multilingualism in Literature. Language and Literature. 24(3), 182-193.
Ghosh, A. (2004). The Hungry Tide. New Delhi: Ravi Dayal Publisher, 2004.
Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Kachru, B. (1983). The Indianization of English: The English Language in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kakati, P. (2013). Indian Elements in the making of Indian English Literature. The Challenge. 22 (2), 1-6.
Mukherjee, M. (1971). The Twice Born Fiction: Themes and Techniques of Indian Novel in English. New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann, 168.
Müller, K.B. (2015). Code-switching in Italo-Brazilian literature from Rio Grande do Sul and Sãu Paulo: A sociolinguistic analysis of the forms and functions of literary code-switching. Language and Literature. 24 (3), 249-263.
Myers-Scotton, C. (1993). Social Motivations for Code-Switching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rollason, C. (2006). Indian Writing in English: Some Language Issues and Translation Problems. Writers’ Meet: Jawaharlal Nehru University. 8 March 2006.
Roy, A. (2002). The God of Small Things. New Delhi: Penguin.
Salvador, D. S. (2007). “Translational Passages: Indian Fiction in English as Transcreation?” Conference paper. V Congreso Internacional de Traducción. Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 7.
Sarangi, J. (2005). Indian Novels in English: A Sociolinguistic Study. Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot.
Schmeling, M. & Schmitz-Emans, M. (eds) (2002). Multilinguale Literatur im 20. Jahrhundert. Wurzburg, Konigshausen & Neumann.
Sebba, M. (2011). Multilingualism in Written Discourse: An Approach to the Analysis of Multilingual Texts (draft). Retrieved from
Sen, N. D. (1977). An Open Letter to Salman Rushdie. The Indian Magazine, August : 72, 17.
Sundarsingh, J. (2009). Indianized English in Shashi Deshpande’s That Long Silence. Language in India. 9 (2): 69-88.
Thorat, A. (2000). Five Great Indian Novels: A Discourse Analysis. New Delhi: Prestige Books.
Timm, L. A. (1978). Code switching in WAR AND PEACE. In: M. Paradis (ed.) Aspects of Bilingualism. Columbia: Hornbeam, 302-315.
Tylor, E.B. (1974). Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom. New York, NY: Gordon Press, 1. First published in 1871.
Warsi, M.J. (2004). Indianization of English media in India: An Overview. Language in India. 4 (8) August.
Dr. Sangeeta Mukherjee teaches English and Linguistics at Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India). She is the author of the book titled, The Localization of English in Indian Contexts: A Linguistic Analysis of Kanthapura, The God of Small Things and The Hungry Tide and has also guest-edited the Special Issue on Pragmatics in International Journal of Communication. Her areas of research interest are: Pragmatics, Applied Linguistics, Indian English literature, Communication and Film Studies.