© Media Watch 8 (2) 258-269, 2017
ISSN 0976-0911 e-ISSN 2249-8818
Social Media Usage: Barriers and Predictors in Promotion of Social Capital
Panjab University, India
The concept of social capital is quite complex and every scholar defined it differently. Taking into consideration the idea of social capital discussed by Robert Putnam, James Coleman, Michael Woolcock, etc. the current study has determined the variables affecting the social capital. These variables are demographics (social network, education level and income) and psychographics (trust and empathy). Social capital in the current study is considered the combination of ‘connectedness’ and ‘civic engagement’. ‘Connectedness’ include all the factors related to social media such as adoption of social media for civic engagement, early adoption of social media and frequency of using social media tools. ‘Civic engagement’ was measured in form of intensity, nature and frequency. To have more clarity of the research, association of demographics and psychographics with adoption of social media was determined. The study examined the association between early adoption of social media and frequency of civic engagement to know whether connectedness and civic engagement are linked to each other.
Keywords: Social capital, social media, civic engagement and volunteerism
Barber, C., Mueller, T. C., & Ogata, S. (2013). Volunteerism as purpose: Examining the long- term predictors of continued community engagement. Educational Psychology, 33 (3), 314- 333.doi: 10.1080/01443410.2013.772775
Bekkers, R. (2011). Trust and volunteering: selection or causation? Evidence from a 4 year panel study.Retrieved March 7, 2013, from http://www/fsw.vu.nl/en/Images/Bekkers_POBE_11_tcm31-274938.pdf.
Bergman, D. J. M. (2005). Access to the internet in the context of community participation and community satisfaction.New Media & Society, 7 (1).doi: 10.1177/1461444805049146.
Bosancianu, M. C., Powell, S., &Bratoviæ, E. (2013).Social Capital and Pro-Social Behavior Online and Offline, International Journal of Internet Science, 8 (1), 49–68. Retrieved from, http://www.ijis.net/ijis8_1/ijis8_1_bosancianu_et_al.pdf
Brunell, A. B., Tumblin, L., &Buelow, M. T. (2014).Narcissism and the motivation to engage in volunteerism. Retrieved May 1, 2014, from http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/553/art%253A10.1007%252Fs12144-014-9216-7.pdf?auth66=1399140580_b9c91ff9680e7dc5c8415fe992397754&ext=.pdf
Bryant, K. W., Slaughter, J. H., Kang, H., & Tax, A. (2003). Participation in philanthropic activities: Donating money and time.Journal of Consumer Policy, 26 (1).43–73.doi: 10.1023/A:1022626529603
Burt, R. R. (1997) The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42 (2), 339- 365.http://www.jstor.org/stable/2393923. Coleman, S. J. (1998) Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociolog, 94, S64- S120.http://www.jstor.org/stable/2780243
Flanagan, C.A., Syvertsen, A.K., and Stout, M.D. (2007).Civic Measurement Models: Tapping Adolescents’ Civic Engagement. CIRCLE Working Paper 55. The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement. Retrieved January, 2012, from, (http://www.civicyouth.org/PopUps/WorkingPapers/WP55Flannagan.pdf)
Hooper, P., &Stobart, S. (2003). Using third-party services to reduce the development cost and improve the effectiveness of charity websites. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary sector Marketing, 8 (4), 328- 336. doi: 10.1002/nvsm.223
Paik, A., & Jackson, N. L. (2010). Social networks, recruitment, and volunteering: are social capital effects conditional on recruitment? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40 (3), 476- 496.doi: 10.1177/0899764009354647.
Portes, A. (1998) Social Capital: Its origins and Applications in Modern Sociology. Annual Review, 24, 1-24. arjournals.annualreviews.org
Putnam, D. R. (2000).Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community.New York, NY: Simon and Schuster Paperbacks.
Selbee, K. L., & and Reed, B. P. (2000). Patterns of volunteering over the life cycle.Retrieved June 9, 2014, fromhttp://www3.carleton.ca/casr/Patterns%20of%20Vol.pdf
Smith, D. H. (1966). A psychological model of individual participation in formal voluntary organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 72 (3), 249-266. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2775487.
Spreng, N., McKinnon, Mar,R., & and Levine, B. (2009). Scale development and initial validation of a factor-analytic solution to multiple empathy measures.Retrieved January, 2012, from, (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2775495/).
Uslaner, M. E. (n.d.). Trust, civic engagement, and the internet.Retrieved 29, November, 2012, from http:// www.edtechpolicy.org/ArchiveWebsites/internettrust.pdf.
Warburton, J., Paynter, J., &Petriwskyj, A. (2007).Volunteering as a productive aging activity: Incentives and barriers to volunteering by australian Seniors. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 26 (4), 333-354. doi: 10.1177/0733464807304568
Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000) Social Capital: Implications for Development Theory, Research and Policy.The World Bank Research Observer, 15 (2), 225- 249. http://wbro.oxfordjournals.org/
Yamagishi, T. (1986).The provisioning of a sanctioning system as a public good.Journalof Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 110-116. http://www.fetzer.org/sites/default/files/images/stories/pdf/selfmeasures/Self_Measures_for_Trust_TRUST.pdf.
Zuniga, G. H., & Valenzuela, S. (2010). The mediating path to a stronger citizenship: online and offline networks, weak ties, and civic engagement. Communication Research, 38 (3), 397-421. doi:10.1177/0093650210384984
Hemdeep Kaur recently completed PhD from School of Communication Studies from Punjab University, Chandigarh, India. Her areas of research are media effects, online media and development communication.