© Media Watch 7 (3) 299-314, 2016
ISSN 0976-0911 e-ISSN 2249-8818
Motivation toward Physical Activity: Effect of Social Media Community on Exercise Adherence
JUSTIN BARNES1, YONG-CHAE RHEE2 & REBECCA J. TALLENT3
1, 3University of Idaho, USA
2Washington State University, USA
The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding a venue for exercise adherence motivation toward physical activity via social media support. The five themes identified that positively affected participants’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to adhere to exercise through a social media fitness application were: accountability matters; support is crucial for a sedentary population beginning exercise; recognition of gains positively affects motivation; social media creates positive fitness competition; and fitness is a lifestyle.
Keywords: Social media, adherence, motivation, exercise
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to action: A theory of planned behavior.In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Ed.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11-39). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag GmbH.
Anderson, K., Burford, O. & Emmerton, L. (2016, May 23). “Mobile health apps to facilitate self-care: A qualitative study of user experience.” PLOS One. http://dx.doi.org/10.137/ journal.pone.0156164
Bates, D.W., Saria, S., Ohno-Machado, L., Shah, A. & Escobar, G. (2014). “Big data in health care: Using analytics to identify and manage high risk and high cost patients.” Health Affairs. 33 (7) 1123.
Blanchard, C. M., Courneya, K. S., Rodgers, W. M., Fraser, S. N., Murray, T. C., Daub B., & Black,
B. (2003). Is the theory of planned behavior a useful framework for understanding exercise adherence during phase II cardiac rehabilitation? Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 23(1), 29-39.
Brunt, A., Rhee, Y., & Zhong, L. (2008) Differences in dietary patterns among college students according to body mass index. Journal of American College Health, 56(6), 629-634.
Casey, D. De Civita, M. and Dasgupta, K. (2009). Understanding physical activity facilitators and barriersduring and following a supervised exercise programme inType 2 diabetes: a qualitative study. Diabetic Medicine.
Cho, J., Park, D.J. & Ordonez, Z. (2013, Nov. 11). “Communication-oriented person-organizational fit as a key factor in job-seeking behaviors: Millennials’ social media use and attitudes toward organizational social media policies.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 16, p. 794-799.
Conner, K., Brady, R.R.W. & Tulloh, B. (2013, April 23). “Smartphone applications (apps) for bariatric surgery.” Springer Science + Science Media.23:1669-1672.
Coughlin, S., Thind, H., Liu, B. Champagne, N. & Massey, R.I. (2016, April-June). “Mobile
phone apps for preventing cancer through educational and behavorial interventions:
State of the art and remaining challenges.” JMIR MhealthUhealth 4 (2) e69.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1975). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
Dishman, R. K., & Dunn, A. L. (1988). Exercise adherence in children and youth: Implications for adulthood. In R. Dishman (Ed.), Exercise adherence: Its impact on public health (pp. 155-200). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
Donovan, J. (March 26, 2014) Best fitness gadgets and tech to get you into shape. Retrieved from http://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/best-fitness-trackers-devices-gadgets/#ixzz2xZaw2WXz.
Douglas, K,. Collins J. L., & Warren C. (1997). Results from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. Journal of the American College Health Association, 46(2), 55–66.
Economos, C. D., Hildebrandt, M. L., & Hyatt, R. R. (2008). College freshman stress and weight change: Differences by gender. American Journal of Health Behavior, 32(1), 16-25.
Elliott, T. R., & Leung, P. (2005). Vocational rehabilitation: History and practice. In W. B. Walsh & M. L. Savickas (Ed.), Handbook of vocational psychology (3rd ed.) (pp. 319-343).
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Fern, E. (1982). The use of focus groups for idea generation: The effects of group size, acquaintanceship, and moderator on response quantity and quality. Journal of Marketing Research 19, 1-13.
Fountaine, C. J., Liguori, G. A., Arupendra, M., &M. Schuna, J. M. (2011). Physical activity and screen time sedentary behaviors in college students. International Journal of Exercise Science, 4(2) : 102-112
Fuglestad, P. T., Jeffery, R. W., & Sherwood, N. E. (2012). Lifestyle patterns associated with diet, physical activity, body mass index and amount of recent weight loss in a sample of successful weight losers. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity, 9(1), p79-88.
Gomez, R., & Capelao, T. (2013). Commitment to exercise: The influence of personal, athletic, and psychological characteristics. Universitas Psychologica, 12(2), 505-515.
Goodman, E. S., Gail, B, & Huang, B. (2003). The public health impact of socioeconomic status on adolescent depression and obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 93(11), 1844-1850
Granzin, K. L., & Olson, J. B. (1989). Identifying those ready to make a voluntary commitment to fitness. Jounral of Sport Maganment, 3(2),116-128
Grave, R. D., Calugi, S., Centis, E., El Ghoch, M., & Marchesini, G. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral strategies to increase the adherence to exercise in the management of obesity.
Journal of Obesity, 1-11.
Gruber, K. J. (2008). Social support for exercise and dietary habit among college students. Adolescence, 43(171), 557-575.
Hawkins, D. I., Best, R. J., & Coney, K. A. (2004). Consumer behavior: Building marketing strategy.
New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hossler, D., Schmit, J., & Vesper, N. (1999). Going to college: How social, economic, and educational factors influence the decisions students make.Baltimore, MA: John Hopkins University
Horyna, B., & Bonds-Raacke, J. (2012). Differences in students’ motivation to attend college: Large versus small high schools. Project Innovation, Inc., 132(4), 708- 724.
Hoyt, J. E., & Brown, A. B. (2003). Marketing UVSC: How prospective students view the college. Unpublished manuscript.
Hsu, Y., Buckworth, J., Focht, B. C., & O’Connell, A. A. (2013). Feasibility of a Self-Determination
Theory-based exercise intervention promoting Healthy at Every Size with sedentary overweight women: Project CHANGE. Psychology of Sport & Exercise. 14(2), 283-292.
Kahn, E., Ramsey, L., Brownson R., & Health, G. (2002). The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: A systematic review, task force on community preventive services. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 22(4S), 73-107.
Kavanaugh, D. (2009). Comparison of motivational factors between Japanese and United States high school students [Master’s thesis]. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from http:// www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED505981.pdf
Kilpatrick, M., Hebert, E., & Bartholomew, J. (2005). College students’ motivation for physical activity: Differentiating men’s and women’s motives for sport participation and exercise. Journal of American College Health, 54(2), 87-94.
Krueger, R. A. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lazer, W. (1963). Life style concepts and marketing. In S. Greyser (Ed.), Toward scientific marketing (pp. 140-151). Chicago: American Marketing Association.
Nielson Newswire (2014, Feb. 26). “Millennials: Technology = social connection.” Retrieved from Nielson Newswire website on July 26, 2016 at http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., &FlegalK. M. (2012). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA. 311(8): 806–814.
Pagoto, S., Schneider, K., Jojic, M. &DeBlasse, M. (2013). Evidence-based strategies in weight-loss mobile apps.American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 45(5) 576-582.
Paulin, M., Ferguson, R., Jost, N. & Fallu, J-M. (2014). Motivating Millennialsto engage in charitable causes through social media.Journal of Service Management. 25(3) 334-348.
Pollock, M. L. (1988). Prescribing exercise for fitness and adherence. In R. Dishman (Ed.), Exercise adherence: Its impact on public health (pp. 259-277). Champaign: IL: Human Kinetics Books.
Pressler, A., Knebel, U., Esch, S., Kölbl, D., Esefeld, K., Scherr, J., Haller, B., Schmidt-Trucksäss,
A., Krcmar, H., Halle, M., & Leimeister, J. M. (2010). An internet-delivered exercise
intervention for workplace health promotion in overweight sedentary employees: A randomized trial. Preventive Medicine, 51(3/4), 234-239.
Purewal, S. J. (2013). The five best fitness social networks for men. Retrieved from http://
www.menshealth.com/techlust/five-best-fitness-social-networks-men Schlosberg, S. (1995). The hunks, the dumbbells, and you. Health, 9(1), 95.
Seal, D. W., Bogart, L. M., & Ehrhardt, A. A. (1998). Small group dynamics: The utility of focus group discussions as a research method. Group Dynamics, 2, 253-266.
Smith, A. (2015). U.S. smartphone use in 2015. Pew Recearch Center. Retrieved on July 25,
2016 from the Pew Research Center website at http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/ 01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015/
Stoll, S. K. (2007). Virtue driven lives: What it takes to be a servant leader. Football Edition, 3. Moscow, ID: Center for ETHICS*, University of Idaho.
Tarkan, L. (February 23, 2012). How social networking can boost your workout. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/health/2012/02/23/how-social-networking-can-boost- your-workout/.
Teasdale, N., Hue, O., Marcotte, J., Berrigan, F., Simoneau, M., Doré, J., Marceau, P., Marceau,
S., & Tremblay, A. (2007). Reducing weight increases postural stability in obese and morbid obese men. International Journal of Obesity. 31(1), 153-160.
Toraman, N. F. (2005). Short term and long term detraining: Is there any difference between young-old and old people? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(8), 561-564.
Turner, K. M., Salisbury, C., & Shield, J. H. (2012). Parents’ views and experiences of childhood obesity management in primary care: A qualitative study. Family Practice, 29(4), 476-481.
Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallieres, E. F. (1992).
The academic motivation scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 1003-1017.
VanDellen, M. (2010). Self-control is contagious. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 13(1).
Veiga, O. L., Gómez-Martínez, S., Martínez-Gómez, D., Villagra, A., Calle, M. E., & Marcos, A. (2009). Physical activity as a preventive measure against overweight, obesity,
infections, allergies and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: AFINOS Study protocol. BMC Public Health, 9, 475-485.
Vrazel, J., Saunders, R., Wilcox, S., (2008). An Overview and proposed framework of social-
environmental influences on the physical activity behavior of women. American Journal of Health Promotion, 23(1), 2-12.
Weinstock, J. (2010). A review of exercise as intervention for sedentary hazardous drinking college students: Rationale and issues. Journal of American College Health, 58(6), 539-544.
Wharton, C.M., Adams, T., & Hampl, J.S. (2008). Weight loss practices and body image distortion among U.S. college students. Journal of American College Health, 56, 579-584.
Whitbourne, S. K. (May 12, 2012). 19 Reasons to Exercise. Retrieved from http://
Dr. Justin J. Barnes is an assistant professor in the School of Journalism and Mass Media at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. Dr. Barnes teaches advertising/strategic communications plus advises the university’s competitive advertising team. His principle research interests are: branding, advertising and integrated marketing trends in social media, pedagogical style and its impact on moral development, and athletic reputation and its impact on the perception of a university’s academic quality/the big business of college athletics.
Dr. Yong-Chae Rhee is an assistant professor in the Department of Sports Management, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Dr. Rhee teaches sports management, sport market research and sport event planning, among other courses, at Washington State University. His overriding goal of research is to improve the understanding of sport consumer behavior focused particularly on the topic of fan identification. He is interested in identifying key consumer psychological variables that influence fan identification including Relative Deprivation and Social Identification. In addition, he is interested in the development and application of various statistical (structural equation model test) and methodological approaches (experimental and qualitative studies) to his research interest areas.
Dr. Rebecca J. Tallent teaches public relations and cultural diversity courses at the University of Idaho. A former journalist who covered the petroleum industry and finance in Oklahoma, Texas, Dr. Tallent also has 19 years of experience as a public relations specialist, primarily in the medical profession. She is a member of the National Board of Director for the Society of Professional Journalists and is a member of the Native American Journalists Association. Her principle research emphasis is in two areas: classroom pedagogy, especially critical thinking skills for the adult learner and Native American media law.