© Media Watch 10 (2) 309-322, 2019
ISSN 0976-0911 e-ISSN 2249-8818
Means of Influence on Public Opinion in Political Context: Speech Manipulation in the Media
ANNA V. KALININA1, ELENA E. YUSUPOVA2, ELENA V. VOEVODA3
1Tyumen Industrial University, Russian Federation
2,3MGIMO University, Russian Federation
The manipulation problem in the media has been still pressing. Processes and techniques intended for making an influence on public opinion and behaviors are in ongoing improvement, making it difficult to access an objective image of the world. Therefore, this research aims at emphasizing the importance of speech (language) means that form a basis of manipulations in mass communications. To achieve this, authors have provided the systematization of social influence processes in the media and made techniques and means of speech influence clearer. Authors provided a content analysis of texts of 2018 from the media using news resources of different countries (‘Russia Today,’ ‘RIA Novosti,’ ‘Ukrinform’ and ‘Fox News Channel’) as an example. The research subject consists of news materials of a politico-social nature on Russia’s participation in the Syrian conflict. Authors have empirically revealed a clear desire to influence readers of the media resources using covert means of the manipulative influence. In total, they have found five types of manipulative speech influence in texts of the media. There are self-presentation, semantic speech strategies, persuasive strategies, hit piece and information manipulation. A lexical toolkit of speech manipulation includes euphemisms, dysphemisms, slogan words, speech metaphorization, etc. Media texts have become more and more complicated as they contain hints, precedent phenomena, irony, as well as metamessages of informative presentation. Each media of the selected ones more or less uses means of speech manipulation in varying degrees. Applications of such methods of influence (in number) almost directly depend on a political attitude towards an object.
Keywords: Media, manipulation processes, public opinion and behaviors, speech means of influence, advocacy
Aribova, N.V. (2017). Media discourse in the 21st century. The study of lingual-philosophical aspect in language of the media. Moscow: MSU Press, Faculty of Journalism of M.V. Lomonosov MSU.
Associated Press (2018, July 5). Syria, Russia resume Southern offensive after talks collapse. Retrieved from https://www.foxnews.com/world/syria-russia-resume-southern-offensive-after-talks-collapse
Blakar, R.M. (1987). Language as a tool of social power. In Language and modelling of social interactions (pp. 131-169). Moscow: Progress.
Bolinger, D. (2017). Truth – issue of linguistics. Moscow: Progress.
Bulygina, I.V. (2014). Speech interaction. Moscow: Pedagogika.
Carnegie, D. (2015). The secret of good performance. Moscow: Unity Dana.
Danilenko, V.D. (2016). The development of linguistics for formation of public opinion. Novosibirsk: Siberia.
Deliagin, M. (2018, December 20). Surrender or preparation for the Christmas War. Retrieved from https://russian.rt.com/opinion/585535-delyagin-ssha-siriya-voiska-vyvod
Dotsenko, E.L. (1996). Psychology of manipulation. Phenomena, mechanisms, protection. Volgograd.
Dotsenko, E.L. (1997). Psychology of manipulation. Phenomena, mechanisms, protection. Moscow: CheRo, MSU Press.
Galperin, I.R. (2017a). Discourse of contemporary linguistics. Moscow: Pedagogika.
Galperin, I.R. (2017b). Types of information in a printed text. Moscow: Progress.
Garimov, V.G. (1987). Language as a tool of social power. In Language and modelling of social interaction (pp. 67). Moscow: Progress.
Giessen, H.W. (2015). Sustainable entrepreneurship and peculiarities of media-based learning. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 2(3), 154-162. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2014.2.3(4)
Grebenkina, I.L. (2016). Process of communicative interaction. Moscow: Zhurnalistika.
Isachenko, V. (2018, October 2). Russia delivers S-300 air defences to Syria. Retrieved from https://www.foxnews.com/world/russia-delivers-s-300-air-defenses-to-syria
Issers, O.S. (2017). Consumers of information field. Novosibirsk: Siberia.
Izosimova, O.N. (2017). Psychological components of SPEECH influences in the media. Moscow: Psichologos.
Kalmykova, T. (2018, September 27). Al-Jubeir called Idlib agreements between Russia and Turkey excellent. Retrieved from https://ria.ru/20180927/1529434796.html
Karmenov, V.I. (2016). The process of communicative interaction. Moscow: Zhurnalistika,
Kirichenko, A.A. (2016). Analysis of theory of discourse. Chelyabinsk: ChSU.
Kirillova, E.V. (2014). NLP and modern media. Moscow: Phichologos.
Kopnina, G.A. (2016). Manipulation in the media: SPEECH influences on recipient. Chelyabinsk: ChSU.
Kots, A. (2018, September 18). Cover against rocket. As Israeli Air Force put Russian IL-20 under fire. Retrieved from https://ria.ru/20180918/1528799910.html
Leontyev, I.V. (2014). Contemporary linguistics. Moscow: Pedagogika.
Lyubimova, A.A. (2006). Language aspects of influence on public opinion (Candidate’s thesis). Moscow: M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Maksimova, I.V. (2015). Psycholinguistic process as a cross-subject problem. Saint Petersburg: Piter.
Marianikina, A.D. (2014). Analysis of the media. Specifics of writing. Saint Petersburg: Piter.
Nikolaeva, T.M. (2016). Basics of SPEECH influence. Novosibirsk, Siberia.
Oratynskaya, Yu.V. (2013). Ways of the media influence on recipient. Moscow: Zhurnalistika.
Peleckis, K., Peleckienë, V., Peleckis, K., & Polajeva, T. (2016). Towards sustainable entrepreneurship: role of non-speech communication in business negotiations. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 4(2), 228-239. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2016.4.2(10)
RIA Novosti (2018, September 8). In Germany they told how the West had embarrassed itself in Syria. RIA Novosti. Retrieved from https://ria.ru/20180908/1528079745.html
RIA Novosti (2018, November 11). Political scientist disclosed the next political fiasco of the United States. Retrieved from https://ria.ru/20181111/1532542624.html
RIA Novosti (2018, December 12). In Syrian Latakia, children received more than 550 kg of Tula gingerbread. Retrieved from https://ria.ru/20181212/1547841437.html
Russia Today (2018, December 15). Ministry of Defence told about situation in Syrian refugee camp Er-Rukban. Retrieved from https://russian.rt.com/world/news/583314-minoborony-bezhency-siriya
Russia Today (2018, December 17). Meeting of Russia, Iran, and Turkey in Syria to be held in Geneva on December 18. Retrieved from https://russian.rt.com/world/news/584338-rossiya-iran-turciya-siriya-vstrecha
Russia Today (2018, December 21). The Kremlin commented on Statement of withdrawal of US troops from Syria. Retrieved from https://russian.rt.com/world/news/585786-kreml-zayavlenie-vyvod-voisk-ssha
Sadalsky, M. (2018, December 19). How foreign journalists spread fakes on relationship between Ukraine and the ISIL. Retrieved from https://www.ukrinform.ru/rubric-world/2604357-kak-inostrannye-zurnalisty-rasprostranaut-fejki-o-svazah-ukrainy-i-igil.html
Sedov, K.F. (2018). Analysis of SPEECH impact on public opinion. Saint Petersburg: Piter.
Shteinov, V.P. (2015). Hidden control over person (manipulation psychology). Saint Petersburg: Piter.
Sternin, I.A. (2017). Applied rhetoric. Modern vision of the question. Moscow: Pedagogika.
Svinchenko, N.V. (2017). Communication impact of language means. Moscow: Yazyk.
Sviridova, S.A. (2015). The study of influence of contemporary journalism on public opinion. Saint Petersburg: Piter.
Tarasov, V.N. (2016). Language as regulator of interpersonal interaction. Saint Petersburg: Piter.
Ukrinform (2018, November 29). Negotiations on Syria in Astana have produced no results – the UN envoy. Retrieved from https://www.ukrinform.ru/rubric-world/2590369-peregovory-otnositelno-sirii-v-astane-ne-dali-rezultatov-poslannik-oon.html
krinform (2018, December 7). Putin is weaker than it wants to seem – Poroshenko. Retrieved from https://www.ukrinform.ru/rubric-polytics/2596006-putin-bolee-slab-cem-hocet-kazatsa-porosenko.html
Ukrinform (2018, December 19). Russia as a mediator for years has been supporting terrorist groups in the world – the media. Retrieved from https://www.ukrinform.ru/rubric-world/2604195-rossia-kak-posrednik-godami-podderzivaet-terroristiceskie-gruppirovki-v-mire-smi.html
Ukrinform (2018, December 21). Russia is a main threat at the international level – Foreign Minister of Poland. Retrieved from https://www.ukrinform.ru/rubric-world/2605576-ot-rossii-idet-glavnaa-ugroza-na-mezdunarodnom-urovne-glava-mid-polsi.html
Vasilyeva, A.D. (2015). SPEECH interaction. Moscow: Pedagogika.
Vasilyeva, N. (2018, September 18). Russia blames Israel for shooting down of plane off Syria. Fox News. Retrieved from https://www.foxnews.com/world/russia-blames-israel-for-shooting-down-of-plane-off-syria
Vinogradov, V.V. (2017). Communication impact of language means. Moscow: Yazyk.
Zelinsky, S.A. (2008). Manipulations of personality and crowds. Manipulative techniques of government in an attack on subconscious of individuals and crowds. Saint Petersburg: Skifiya.
Anna V. Kalinina (Ph.D., Tyumen State University, 2006) is an Associate professor in the Department of Marketing and Municipal Management at Tyumen Industrial University (Tyumen, Russian Federation). Her research interests are non-commercial advertising, mass communications, employment, territory branding, problems of society, history, economic sustainability, political and social advertising, public relations, political processes.
Elena E. Yusupova (Ph.D., MGIMO University, 2003) is an Associate Professor in the Department of International Journalism and Deputy Dean of the Faculty of International Journalism at MGIMO University (Moscow, Russian Federation). Her research interests are international journalism, mass media, information space, CIS media, mass communication, theory and methodology of higher education, communication technologies, media text.
Elena V. Voevoda (Dr. habil., Federal Institute for Educational Development, 2011) is Head of Department of Pedagogy and Psychology, Professor of the English Language Department #2 in MGIMO University (Moscow, Russian Federation). Her research interests are cross-cultural psychology, intercultural communication, education.