© Media Watch 9 (2) 245-256, 2018
ISSN 0976-0911 e-ISSN 2249-8818
Political Activity of Russians:Current Trends and Resources of Media Influence
IVAN V. RADIKOV, ALEXANDRA I. RADUSHINSKAYA, SVETLANA S. MOROZOVA & VLADIMIR G. BELOUS
Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation
Authors assume that in the post-Soviet time, political consciousness among the Russians has significantly changed. Causes of this not only include general de-politicization in the society, but also a modified nature of the media influence. The research purpose is to search for reasons that cause booms and falls in the interest of the Russians in politics. The methodological framework of the research included the Verba-Pye model of engagement in politics, Lipset’s conclusions about citizens’ engagement in political affairs; assumptions from the Lipset-Rokkan model of political preferences of citizens; Scott’s concept of imitation of political activism, and Bryant’s conclusions about specifics of media influence on public opinion. The empirical basis of the research includes data from sociological and marketing research made by Russian centers for the study of public opinion. As a result of the research, its authors have established that country residents do not mostly show high political engagement and civil activism.
Keywords: Political interest, political activity, political inaction, political imitation, depressive society, media
Almond G., Verba S. (1963). The Givic Culture. Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Countries.Princeton.
ANO “Levada-Centr’”. (2015). Readiness to Protest and Interest in Politics. Retrieved from: http://www.levada.ru/2015/11/09/gotovnost-protestovat-iinteres-k-politike/. (Date Accessed: December 22, 2017).
ANO “Levada-Centr”. (2017). Responsibility and Influence. Retrieved from: https:// www.levada.ru/2017/11/13/17013/. (Date Accessed: December 17, 2017).
Barber, Â. (1984). Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. By Barber Benjamin R. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Barrett, M., Brunton-Smith, I. (2014). Political and Civic Engagement and Participation: Towards an Integrative Perspective //Journal of Civil Society. 2014, 10 (1), 5–28.
Baudrillard J. (1981). Simulacres et simulation. Paris: Galilée. Bauman, Z. (2005). The Individualized Society. Moscow: Logos.
Berger, P. L., Luckmann, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.
Bryant,J., Thompson S. (2002). Fundamentals of Media Effects. New York: McGraw-Hill. Dahrendorf, R. (2002). The Modern Social Conflict. An Essay on the Politics of Liberty. Moscow:
Debord, G. (1999). The Society of the Spectacle. Moscow: Logos.
Deleuze, G. (1998). Logic of Sense. Moscow-Ekaterinburg: Akademic heskiy project. Dmitriev, Ju.A. (2011) Special Features of the Development of Democracy in Russia at the Turn of the 20th–21st Centuries. Retrieved from: http://pandia.ru/text/77/313/ 33353.php. (Date Accessed: December 11, 2017).
Filina, O. (2017). Stick Together in Emptiness. Ogonek, 51, 12–13. (2017, December 25). Fyodorova, M. (2017). Kseniya Sobchak the President is a Joke. Top-Level Art Project. Interview with the Person on the November Cover. Retrieved from: https://www.glamour.ru/ celebrity/glamourama/kseniya -sobchak -prezident-eto -steb-art-proekt-ochen-vysokogo-urovnya-intervyu-s-geroiney-noyabrskoy-oblozhki (Date Accessed: November 28, 2017).
Gellner, E. (1995). Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and Its Rivals. Moscow: Ad Marginem. Goncharov, D.V. (1997).The theory of political participation. Moscow: Yurist.
Gorshkov, M.K. & Tihonova, N.E. (eds.). (2016). The Middle Class in Modern Russia. Experience of Long-Time Research. Moscow: Ves’ mir.
Grigoryeva, E.B. (2014). The Political Effects of the Authoritarian Syndrome in the Modern Political Process in Russia. Tomsk State University Journal, 379, 46–54.
Ilyin, A.N. (2014). De-Consolidation and De-Politicization as Characteristics of Consumer Society. Sociological Studies, 3, 101–115.
Kikuchi, Ñ. (2016). Exercice de la peur: Usages politiquesd’uneémotion Patrick Boucheron, Corey Robin, Renaud Payre. Retrieved from: http://www.slate.fr/story/112263/exercer-peur-politique (Date Accessed: December 21, 2017).
Krasin, Yu.A. (2007). Democracy in the Face of Challenges: Modification or Paradigm Shift? In: Russia during Reforms. M.K. Gorshkov (ed.). Iss. 6. Moscow: Institute of Sociology of the RAS, 255–264.
Kravchenko, S.A. (2002). Game-zation of the Russian Society (On Proving the New Sociological Paradigm). Social Sciences and Contemporary World, 6, 143–155.
Lazarsfeld, P., Berelson, B. & Gaudet, H. (1969). The People’s Choice. How Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. New York – London.
Lipset S., Rokkan S. (1967) Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-national Perspectives. New York: Free Press.
Lipset, M. (2016). Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Moscow: Mysl’.
Margulev, A. (2008). ImitationState “Russia”. Retrieved from: http://www.pravda.info/society/ 47752.html (Date Accessed: November 28, 2017).
Merton, R. K. (1996) Manifest and Latent Functions. American Sociological Thought: Texts. Moscow: Publishing house of the International University of Business and Management, P. 393-461.
Nietzsche, F. (2005) On Truth and Lies in a Non-Moral Sense. Retrieved from: http:// www.nietzsche.ru/works/other/about-istina/. (Date Accessed: December 20, 2017).
Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.
Pipes, R. (2015).Two Ways of Russia. Moscow: Algoritm.
Political Cynicism: The Concept and the Post-Soviet Reality. (2015). Proc. of All-Russia sci. conf. (Rostov on Don, March 27–28, 2015). The Political Conceptology, 2, 137–247.
Pshizova, S. (2013). From Emulation to Imitation in Political Practices. Retrieved from: http:/ /rau/su/observer/¹ 9-10/2004/ (Date Accessed: October 10, 2013).
Radikov I. (2015). Polityczna i obywatelska aktywnosc ludnosci wspotczesnej Rosji. Pismo Wydzialu Studiow Miedzynarodowych i Politycznych Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, Politeja, Krakow 2015, 34/2, 63-78.
Radikov I. (2016). Political Trust Forpower: Resource or Problem? Science and education: economy and economics; entrepreneurship; law and management. 2016, 4 (71), 130-134.
Radikov I. (2017). Political Fear as a Factor of Modern Politics. Vlast’. 2017, 4, 43-49.
Rosenstone, S.J., Hansen, J.M. (1993). Mobilization, Participation and Democracy in America.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Scott J. (1996). Weapons of the Weak: Routine Forms of Resistance of Peasants. Peasant studies: theory, history, modernity: annals. Moscow: Aspect-Press. Pp.26-59.
Selivanova, À.Î. (2017). Forms of Political Participation: the Problem of Typology. Izv. Saratov Univ. (N. S.), Ser. Sociology. Politology, 2017, 17/3, 354–357.
Shalyugina, T.A. (2011). Imitation in Society as a Subject of Social and Philosophical Analysis. Theory and Practice of Social Development, 8, 33–35.
Teorell, J., Torcal, M., Montero, J. R. (2007). Political Participation: Mapping the Terrain. In: Deth J. W. van, Montero J. R., Westholm A. (eds.). Citizenship and Involvement in European Democracies: A Comparative Analysis. L.; N. Y.: Routledge. P. 334–357.
The Democracy Index 2016. Ranking of Countries by the Democracy Level. Humanitarian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://gtmarket.ru/ratings/democracy-index/ (Date Accessed: December 17, 2017).
The Kremlin States that a Periodic Decline in Interest in Politics is Natural. (2017). Retrieved from: https://www.gazeta.ru/social/news/2017/04/12/n_9914393.shtml. (Date Accessed: November 28, 2017).
The Public Opinion Foundation. (2017, April). Interest of the Youth in Politics. Retrieved from: http://fom.ru/Politika/13285 (Date Accessed: October 28, 2017).
The Public Opinion Foundation. (2017, May). Survey of Teenagers: Interest in Politics and Sources of Information. Retrieved from: http//fom.ru/SMI-i-internet/13324/. (Date Accessed: October 28, 2017).
The Russians Revealed Their Main Fears. Obshhestvo (2017, September 12). Retrieved from: https://www.rbc.ru/society/12/09/2017/59b778d99a7947390ee28d69. (Date
Accessed: December 17, 2017).
Toshenko, Zh.T. (2015). Phantoms of Russian Society. Moscow: Center for Social Design and Marketing.
Toshhenko, Zh.T. (ed.). (2016). The Life World of the Russians: 25 Years Later (the end of the 1980s – the mid-2010s). Moscow: TsSP i M.
VCIOM (Russian Public Opinion Research Center). (2017). Social Mood of the Russians. In:
VCIOM Press Issue No. 3421. Retrieved from: https://wciom.ru/
index.php?id=236&uid=116320 (Date Accessed: November 14, 2017).
Zheleznyak Positively Assessed the Decrease in the Russians’ Interest in Politics. (2013, December 16). Retrieved from: http://www.qwas.ru/russia/edinros/Zheleznjak-
pozitivno-ocenil-snizhenie-u-rossijan-interesa-k-politike.(DateAccessed:December 12, 2017).
Zinovyev, A.A. (2006). The Factor of Understanding. Moscow: Algoritm; EKSMO.
Dr. Ivan V. Radikov is a professor in the Russian Politics Department at Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation. His area of scientific interests is political theory, politics and the theory of national security, violence and politics, and Russian policy.
Dr. Alexandra I. Radushinskaya is an asóciate profesor in the Russian Politics Department
at Saint-Petersburg State University. Her area of scientific interests is media technologies in policy, attention economy, policial communications, transmedia storytelling for policy,
Dr. Vladimir G. Belous is a professor in the Russian Politics Department at Saint-Petersburg State University. His area of scientific interests is history of Russian and Russian political thought, Russian policy, and political culture.
Dr. Svetlana S. Morozova is an assistant in the Russian Politics Department at Saint-Petersburg State University. Her area of scientific interests is Russian policy, public administration, political institutes, and political technologies.