© Media Watch 9 (3) 347-360, 2018
ISSN 0976-0911 e-ISSN 2249-8818
Contemporary Journalism in Central Asia: Media Practice and Prospects in the Republic of Kazakhstan
MADINA BULATOVA1 & AYAZBI BEISENKULOV2
Kostanay State University, Republic of Kazakhstan
1,2L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Republic of Kazakhstan
Along with the rapid expansion of new media in Kazakhstan, traditional mass media continue to develop, increasingly intersecting and converting to a convergent form. However, in many respects country’s traditional media are still the main source of information due to deep-rooted traditions and the state of the modern media system. Applying the model of ethnographic research, the authors analyze the use of social media by Kazakh journalists.
Keywords: Kazakhstan, society, journalism, new technologies, new media
Aedeji, B.A (2011). The New Media and Literature: Treats and Threats. South Africa: Highway Africa.
Alejandro, J. (2010). Journalism in the Age of Social Media. Reuters Institute Fellowship.
Alexander, J.C., Breese, E., and Luengo, M. (2014). The Crisis of Journalism to Reconsidered: Cultural Power. Cambridge University Prdess.
Arsenault, A. Catsells, M. (2008). ‘The Structure and Dynamics of Global Multi-Media Business Networks’. International Journal of Communication 2, pp. 707–748.
Bowman, S., and Willis, C. (2003). We Media: How Audiences Are Shaping the Future of News and Information. The Media Center at the American Press Institute.
Brennan, B.S. (2012). Qualititave Research Methods for Media Studies. London: Routledge.
Bullard, S. B. (2013). ‘Social Media and Journalism: What Works Best and Why It Matters’. National Convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Washington, D.C., August 10.
Cairncross, F. (2002). The Company of the Future: How the Communications Revolution is Changing Management. Harvard Business School Press.
Cassell, C., and Symon, G. (1994). ‘Qualitative Research in Work Contexts’. In: Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research (pp. 1-13). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.pp. 1–13.
Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Djerf-Pierre, M., Ghersetti, M., and Hedman, M. (2015). ‘Appropriating Social Media’. Digital Journalism 4 (7). pp. 849–860.
Frisch, N., Belair-Gagnon, V., and Agur C. (2016). How Foreign Correspondents Use Chat Apps to Cover Political Unrest. Tow Center for Digital Journalism. November 4.
Global Social Journalism Study (2015). http://www.cision.com/us/resources/white-papers/social-journalism-study/ (visited on 15 March 2017).
Global Social Journalism Study (2016) http://www.cision.com/us/resources/white-papers/2016-social-journalism-study/ (visited on 7 March 2017).
Greer, J., Yan, Y. (2011). ‘Newspapers Connect with Readers through Multiple Digital Tools’. Newspaper Research Journal 32 (4), pp. 83–86.
Grueskin, B., Seave, A., and Grave, L. (2011) The Story So Far: What We Know About the Business of Digital Journalism. Tow Center for Digital Journalism. Columbia Journalism School.
Gulyas, A. (2013). ‘The Influence of Professional Variables on Journalists’ Uses and Views of Social Media’. Digital Journalism. Vol. 1. Issue 2, pp. 270–285.
Gunter, B. (2003). News and the Net. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Habermas, J. (1989). Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Hanitzsch, T., Hanusch, F., Mellado, C., Anikina, M., Berganza, R., Cangoz, I., Comon, M.,
Hamada, B., Hernández, M.-E., Karadjov, C.D., Moreira, S.V., Mwesige, P.G., Plaisance, P.L., Reich, Z., Seethaler, J., Skewes, E.A., Noor, D.V., and Kee Wang Yuen, E. (2011). ‘Mapping Journalism Cultures across Nations: A Comparative Study of 18 Countries’. Journalism Studies 12 (3), pp. 273–293.
Hassid, J. (2012).’ Safety Valve or Pressure Cooker? Blogs in Chinese Political Life’. Journal of Communication 62(2), pp 212–230.
Hermida, A. (2012). Social journalism: Exploring How Social Media is Shaping Journalism in The Handbook of Online Journalism. Chichester: John Wiley Sons, Inc.
Hermida, A., and Thurman, N. (2008). ‘A Clash of Culture’. Journalism Practice 2 (3), pp. 343–356.
Journalists and Social Media. Aggregate report. January 2012 (2012). Eurobarometer Qualitative Studies.
Kaplan, A. M., and Haenlein, M. (2010). ‘Users of The World, Unite! The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media’. Business Horizons 53 (1), pp.59–68.
Kaplowitz, M.D., Hadlock T.D., and Levine R. ‘A Comparison of Web and Mail Survey Response Rates. Public Opinion Quarterly’. URL: https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfh006.
Kristof, N., (2009). ‘The Daily Me’. The New York Times, March 19. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/19/opinion/19kristof.html?_r=0.
Lavrusik, V. (2010). The Future of Social Media in Journalism. http://mashable.com/2010/09/13/future-social-media-journalism/
Lavrusik, V. (2011 a). How Journalists Can Make Use of Facebook Pages. http://www.niemanlab.org/2011/05/vadim-lavrusik-how-journalists-can-make-use-of-facebook-pages/
Lavrusik, V. (2011 b). Facebook & Its Growing Role in Social Journalism. http://lavrusik.com/2011/03/04/facebook-its-growing-role-in-social-journalism/
Lavrusik,V. (2011 c). My Next Chapter: Facebook Journalism. http://lavrusik.com/2011/04/14/my-next-chapter-facebook-journalism/
Liu, C. (2015). Facebook Journalism: The Influences of Social Media on Journalistic Work in Taiwan. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovative Communication and Sustainable Development in ASEAN. 9th July. National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand.
McCLure, J. (2010). Challenges and Opportunities, New Models, and the Emergence of the Next Newsroom in the Twenty-First-Century Media Industry. London: Lexington Books.
McLuhan, M. (2001). Understanding Media. The Extensions of Man. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Medvednikova, D. (2012). ‘Rol novyih media v sovremennoy zhurnalistike Kazahstana [Role of Social Media on Society in Kazakhstan]. In: Proceedings of the 14th Central Asian Media Conference From Traditional to Online Media: Best Practices and Prospects. July 5-6, pp. 63–70.
Newman, N. (2009). The Rise of Social Media and Its Impact on Mainstream Journalism. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford.
Oriella PR Network Survey: 5 Main Trends in World Journalism. http://www.cossa.ru/155/43786/
Paine, E. (2015).The Next Step Social Media and the Evolution of Journalism. Salem State University.
Paquet, S. (2003). ‘Personal Knowledge Publishing and Its Uses in Research’. Knowledge Board, 10 January, Retrieved 29 May, 2003. URL: http://www.knowledgeboard.com/cgibin/item.cgi?id=96934&d=744&h=746&f=745.
Perrin, A., Smith, A., and Page, D. (2015). Social Media Usage: 2005-2015. Pew Research Center.
Poell, T., and Borra, E. (2011). ‘Twitter, You Tube and Flickr as Platforms of Alternative Journalism: The Social Media Account of the 2010 Toronto G20 Protests’. Journalism. URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177 /1464884911431533.
Raymond, R.K., and Lu, Y. (2011). ‘Reporting on the Reporters: Facebook and Journalists’. Innovation Journalism 8 (2), pp. 3–26.
Reed, R. (2001). ‘(Un-)Professional Discourse? Journalists’ and Scientists’ Stories about Science in the Media’. Journalism 2(3), pp. 279–298.
Santana, A.D., and Hopp, T. (2016). ‘Tapping into a New Stream of (Personal) Data. Assessing Journalists’ Different Use of Social Media’. URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077699016637105.
Social Media & Online Usage Study (2009). http:// us.cision.com/journalist_ survey_2009/GW-Cision_Media_Report.pdf (visited on 12 March 2017).
Sreenivasan, S. (2010). News Orgs Take Social Media Seriously by Hiring Editors to Oversee Efforts. Poynter Institute.
Steensen, S. (2011). ‘Cozy Journalism’. Journalism Practice 5 (6), pp. 687 –703.
van Dijk. T.A. (1995). ‘Power and the News Media’. In: Political Communication in Action. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Vobiè I., Milojeviæ, A. (2014). ‘What We Do is not Actually Journalism: Role Negotiations on Online Departments of Two Newspapers in Slovenia and Serbia’. Journalism 15 (8), pp.1023–1040.
Zassoursky, I. (2004). Media and Power in Post-Soviet Russia. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Dr. Madina Bulatova is an assistant in the Department of Journalism and Communication Management at Kostanay State University, Republic of Kazakhstan. Currently she is pursuing her PhD in innovation journalism at L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University. Dr. Bulatova’s areas of scientific interest are new media technologies, social media, and future of journalism.
Dr. Ayazbi Båisenkulov is an associate professor in the Department of Teleradio and Public Relations at L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan. His research interests include modern mass communications and the influence of social and digital media on human behavior